Saturday, June 10, 2017

Amazons and the Tribe of Dan

Since it's Wonder Woman month, I figure it's time I explore this idea I've been wanting to explore for awhile.  (The embryo of this theory has been in my mind since before Gal Gadot was cast, so now it's just inspired by an Israeli actress playing Wonder Woman.)

At least one prior writer has looked into the possibly of a Lost Tribes connection for the Amazons.  John R. Salverda.  Salverda's many theories on Greek Mythology are something I want to do a separate post on in the future.  For now I just want to comment that while I find his research useful much of it I feel is way off base.  I do not identify Myrina with Mariam.  Also Salverda is very anti-Feminist, talking about "Hebrew Women saved the ancient world from Amazonian Feminism", I however feel part of the intent of the New Testament is to save the world from Patriarchy.  And that the Office of Prophetess held by Mariam is the same one later held by Deborah, and other Prophetesses of the Hebrew Bible all the way down to Anna at the Birth of Christ.  And now since Pentecost by many Christian women starting with the Daughters of Philip.  Mariam and her group of Women were not sinning, in fact I feel they are vital to understanding the importance of the word Almah.

The Geography of the Amazons is a complicated matter.  In Homer they were in Lycia or west of Lycia when encountered by Bellerphon.  The stories of their encounters with Herakles and Theseus focus on the Thermodon river south of the Black Sea near Pontus.  Herodotus says they latter migrated north of the Black Sea and intermarried with Scythians.  The legends surrounding queen Marpesia, Lysippe, Lampedo, Hippo and Otheria connect them to the founding of cities like Ephesus and Smyrna and to eastern Aegean islands like Lemnos, Lesbos and Samothrace. Hypsipyle encountered by Jason and the Argonaughts on Lemnos I think was another Amazon queen and the usual origin story for her women was a made up myth.

Allied with the Amazons mentioned in the Iliad were the Solymi.  Josephus in Against Apion argues the Solymi mentioned by Herodotus as being in Xerxes army were Jews.   William Whiston in his footnotes of his translation agrees with that by contrasting them with other Solymi he feels were pagan gentiles.  But if these Solymi were Danites rather then Judeans then they were similar yet different.

East of Lycia takes us to Cilicia and Adana, definitely early Denyen colonies.  And winding up north of the Black Sea takes them to the Danube.  So Geographically there is good reason to see the Amazons as a Danite offshoot.  And lots of notable Danites of the Bible seem to be Danites mater-lineally, like Huram or the incident in Leviticus 24.  But perhaps the real key to this mystery is looking into who the Goddess of the Amazons was.

Greek sources on their Goddess are confusing.  It's often said to be Artemis but some researches say that was a late development.  Their Queens are often called Daughters of Ares yet that was a male deity.

The Caananite/West Semitic deity who served the function of Ares, as god of War, was a female, the goddess Anath.  This caused attempts of the Greeks to identify her with one of their Goddesses to be similarly complicated.  Her status as a Virgin goddess invited comparisons with both Athena and Artemis, but her association with the Bow and Arrow makes Artemis a bit more plausible.  In the middle east direct analogues to Anath are easier to find, Tanith/Tanis among the Carthaginians and Libyians, Neith in Egypt (but perhaps also Nephethys/Nebtheth).  And it's also possible to see some of Anath in the Hindu Kali.

The name of Anath, or at least the same Semitic root it comes from, appears in The Hebrew Bible.  Like in the location Anathoth.  But in Judges an Anath is the parent of judge Shamgar.  Not much is said about Shamgar, but the vague similarities to Samson can encourage one to see him as another Danite.  Since I agree with Veilikvosky in dating the Ugarit texts to the Kingdom Period, maybe the origin of Anath was in part a deification of the much earlier mother of Shamgar?  But it's also theorized that "Ben Anath" may just have been a title for great warriors, paralleling theories about why Amazons were called daughters of Ares.

In the Ugarit texts, the most important narrative for Anath after her role in the Baal Cycle is in the legend about Danel and his children.  Danel is a name very likely related to Dan, maybe it could be Dan himself deified by his descendants, combining Dan and El.  Anath kills Danel's son Aghat because she wanted his Bow forged by Kothar-Wa-Khasis (who the Greeks would have identified with Hephaestus, also strongly linked to Lemnos) by sending Yatpan after him.  But it seems Aghat's death was not her intent.  The protagonist of the story then becomes Paghat, the younger sister of Aghat.  She sets out to avenger her brother.  The narrative is incomplete, some scholars have theorized Paghat and Anath would be reconciled in the end, with Yatpan as their common enemy.  Maybe the story would have ended with Paghat founding an Amazon tribe?

Myrina and the Libyian Amazons of Diodorus I believe were not Israelites but from Phut.  Diodorus sees no continuity between the Libyan Amazons and later Amazons of Asia Minor even though he says Myrina conquered all those same regions.  However a key distinction with the Libyan Amazons is they worshiped a different kind of Goddess seemingly, a mother Goddess like Cybele.   Also in the context of Myrina's story, I think the Gorgons/Gorgos were an offshoot of the Girgashite tribe of Canaan.

The Artemis of Ephesus is sometimes said to be a mother goddess, sort of Artemis fused with Cybele.  But this is based on the common assumption the images of the Ephesian Artemis are of a woman with countless breasts.  I prefer the theory that that is Bee Hive imagery rather then breasts.  And the Bee Hive imagery can further back up a Danite connection thanks to Samson.

Some texts, including maybe the Iliad itself, imply Dardanus was a consort of Myrina.  So Myrina's Amazons could have intermarried with Danites.  But it's also possible some Danite women later starting their own tribe drew inspiration from the earlier legacy of Myrina.

Because of revised Chronology concerning the Dark Ages of Greece, and my belief that Homer merged together different Trojan wars.  I think Myrina and Dardanus can be re-dated to the 900s BC (the traditional date for Dardanus becoming King is 1475 BC).  Herakles and Bellerphon to the 700s BC, and Perseus to the early 700s or late 800s.  And the final fall of Troy to about 678 or the 660s BC.

For the most part I still date Theseus to the 1200s BC, due to the unbroken chronology of Athenians Kings and Archons.  And that that time period becomes in Revised Chronology the Minoan rather then Mycenean age archeologically fits the story of Theseus and Minos even better.  But perhaps the particular myths about Theseus and Antiope and Hippolytus were about some Athenian from the 800s BC that got applied to Theseus later.  In fact it's unlikely the same Theseus could have married another Minoan princess, Phaedra, after abandoning Ariadne.  Or maybe this story originally involved a prince of a different City-State in Attica.

A lot of modern treatments of Norse Mythology (including Marvel comics and the MCU's Thor franchise) treat the Valkyries as being like the Amazons of Norse Mythology.  But that is not at all what the Valkyreis actually were, they were basically the same thing as the Houris from Islamic belief, beautiful women who serve fallen warriors in paradise.  Instead I think maybe the Vanir were Amazons, what we know about the Vanir is greatly distorted, but it is possibly all the wives of the AEsir gods were Vanir.

The myths of the AEsir and Vanir being at war and later intermarrying I think are partly inspired by two Ancient tribes Waring then coming together.  The AEsir I think descend from Ashkenaz, who were the Askuza of Assyrian records and once dwelt around Lake Ascanius, thus making them Phyrgians during the Trogan War.  Another group of people in Phyrgia yet also treated as distinct were the Mygdons.  The name Mygdon could come from Megiddo/Megiddon.  Mygdon of Greek mythology's mother had an Amazonina name, Anaxineme, but he's also said to have waged war with the Amazons.

The descendants of Ashkenaz are sometimes said to have been Scythians ( a term the Greeks used of all the tribes north of the Black Sea, so not necessarily all from the same Genesis 10 ancestor).   And Herodotus says the Amazons intermarried with Scythians at some point.

I think a number of women in Greek Myhtolgoy not usually labeled Amazons are given away to have been Amazons or of Amazon ancestry by their names.  Including Adromache wife of Hector.  In the oldest depictions Andromache not Hippolyta was the name of the Amazon Queen defeated by Herakles.

One such name is Clymene, an attested Amazon name in at least one source.  But a name given to some Aquatic Nymphs, including the wife of Deucalian.  But is also the name of a mother of Atalanta, who's not considered an Amazon but is thematically similar given her connection to Artemis and being the only woman among the Argonauts.  And her father was Iasus, a name I think cold be a more archaic Greek form of Yehoshua/Yeshua, which in Koin Greek becomes Iesous.

Myrtilus's mother is said variantly both to be an Amazon and a Daughter of Danaus.

The folk Etymology of Amazon meaning "one Breast" and that they had to cut one off to use a Bow and Arrow properly has long annoyed me.  It super annoyed when I was reading the first House of Night book and a teacher is talking specifically about many claims the Greeks made about Amazons being wrong, but then accepts the "one Breast" story as fact.  All artistic depictions of Amazons show them with both Breasts.

But what caught my attention lately, as I've been watching an endless amount of Anime, is it seems in Japanese School Archery Clubs, the females wear costumes that kinda resemble Miko costumes but with different coloring.  But also have a sort of protective covering over the breasts, which could maybe make it look kinda like they have one larger breast rather then two.  Perhaps it hurts my Otaku cred that I don't know what this thing is properly called.  This is interesting since I support some theories about Lost Tribes coming to Japan.

On the subject of anthropologically speculating on what a hypothetical Matriarchal society might be like.  One area where I feel it would be flawed to assume it'd be the exact opposite of most patriarchal societies is in how it practiced Polygamy.  In the Pre-Christian world the only societies that frowned on Polygamy were Greece and later Rome who borrowed from Greece.  It maybe the the devotion to Monogamy in the Christian world is largely another Greco-Roman rather then Hebrew influence.

Polygyny has been far more common then Polyandry.  But there have been Polyandrous cultures that were still very patriarchal in how they practiced it, still viewing the woman as property but as shared property.  The difference between Polygynus cultures and Polandrous cultures was whether their situation needed them to encourage or discourage rapid reproduction.

In The Bible the follower of YHWH are told to be fruitful and multiple.  But the Leverite marriage custom could provide a basis for allowing conditional Polyandry.

So I suspect even a Matriachal culture would still have encouraged men to have multiple sexual partners.  But how it was practiced would have been different.

Of course the Amazons are generally seen has no practicing Marriage as we'd think of it at all.  But mating either with foreigners or with the Gargareans.

It's also maybe not a coincidence that many goddesses associated with the Amazons, like most ancient Virgin Goddesses, were also associated with Lesbianism.  This is perhaps most well documented with Artemis.  But there is possibly homoerotic subtexts in myths about Anath too, her relationships with Shapash and Astarte, and again we don't know how Paghat's story ends.

Another interesting clue just came to my attention.  Harmonia is a name given in Greek Mythology to both the woman by whom Ares fathered the Amazons (though Otrera is said to be both Ares daughter and mother by him of other Amazons) and the wife of Cadmus and mother of his children.  Cadmus was originally a Sidonian Prince, we know from The Bible that they intermarried with Danites often.  It's also said that some Amazons became Meaneds of Dionysus.  Three of the Meaneds were daughters of Cadmus.  Eurypyle is the name of both a Meaned and an Amazon.

In Judges 9:50-57 a Woman of Thebez killed King Abimelech.  Veilikvosky talked about there be tow ancient cities named Thebes, well in The Bible we have a third.  Perhaps originally this was the Thebes of Cadmus.  Perhaps the traditional identification of Biblical Thebez with modern Tubas is off and it was really further north?  What if Thebez could be part of the region elsewhere refereed to as Geshur? (Usually placed in the Golan Heights.)  Geshur had a King named Talmai who's daughter married King David.  Talmai is also the Aramaic form of the name Ptolemy.  And one of the King of Thebes of Greek mythology was a Ptolemy.  This is the only Ptolemy of Greek mythology, the other examples of the name don't pop up till later Classical history.

Psalm 68:14-16 uses Zalmon in a way that could support it being another name for Bashan, which was near Gesher.  It could be the Tower of Shechem wasn't in Shechem proper s we think of it.  The Etymology of Megiddo is no agreed on.  When Herodotus refers to the Battle of Megiddo that involved Necho, he called it Magdolos, which could support it being derivative of Migdal, the Hebrew word for Tower, including when Judges 9 refers to the Tower of Shechem.  Shechem and Megiddo are both connected to Western Manasseh, while Geshur and Bashan were both allotted to Eastern Manasseh.  But after Dan left their original allotment for the northern Dan, they took over much land originally allotted to Naphtali and Eastern Manasseh.  Deuteronomy 33 prophetically says Dan would leap from Bashan.

Or maybe I should even rethink my position of Myrina.  Another Myrina in Greek Mythology was a daughter of Cretheus, who also had a daughter named Hippolyte.   And Cretheus was a brother of Sisyphus and Salmoneus who Salverda argues for identifying with Joseph and Judah.  And the Myrina of Cretheus was the wife of Thoas father of Hypsipyle.  The starting point of Queen Myrina's story being in Libya is the connection to Mont Atlas, but Salverda argues for Atlas being Sinai, which I view as Sana'a in Yemen.  A Middle Eastern location fits better for my Gorgons=Girgashites hunch.  And linking the Amazons to Arabia fits well with my Feminism of Pre-Islamic Arabia observations.  Also King Lycurgus is sometimes alternatively placed in Arabia.

Hippolyta I think was a title or throne name many or maybe even all Amazon Queens held, and that is part of what confused the Amazons history chronologically.

A brief summery of my proposed Amazon chronology.

Myrina conquers much of Syria and Turkey in the early 900s BC. 

Lysippe becomes a key founder of the Thermodon Amazon nation.

Marpesia, her sister Lampedo, and Hippo are the successors of Lysippe.  They conquer more land and found more cities.

Antiope and Orithyia are the successors of Marpesia.  Antiope is captured by an Athenian (but not the original Theseus) and marries him.  Othyria then leads an Amazon expedition against Athens.  Antiope is killed in the battle by the Amazon Molpadia, why isn't agreed on.

Eurypyle campaigns against Samshi-Adad V, (husband of Shammuramat (Semiramis) and so might have become confused with Ninus) with an all female army.

Otrera was the Amazon Queen defeated by Bellerphon.

Andromache is defeated by a Herakles, as well as her sister Melanippe.

Priam and Mygdon fight against Amazons in the same region Bellerphon did earlier.

Pentheselia is an ally of Priam during the 7th Century BC Trojan War.  She was the sister rather then daughter of her predecessor.

Antianeira succeeds Pentheselia.

The Thermodon Amazons migrate north of the Black Sea.

There were probably multiple people behind the legends of Herakles.  Him being sometimes the father of Romulus and Remus fits Velikvosky's date for the final fall of Troy by giving us a Hercules in the 700s BC.

But I want to pay close attention to the myths about Herakles and Omphale.  The Lydians called the father of Omphale's children Tylons, clearly he was a distinct national hero of Lydia the Greeks just identified with Herakles similarly to how they did Melkart of Tyre and others.

Omphale herself was the daughter of a river god, Iardanus.  That is clearly the Jordon, the Strongs explains that the name of Jordon comes from the same root as my name, Jared, with the Greek of Luke 3 renders Iared.

Some of the accounts of the Kings of Lydia says the descendants of Herakles and Omphale took over a few generation later, and weren't the immediate children of them.  This can very much support the idea that Herakles and Omphale's relationship originally took place elsewhere.

I have argued that Delilah was an Israelite not a Philistine.  While at the same time arguing she was the mother of Micah in chapter 17.  Maybe Herakles and Omphale were inspired by Samson and Delilah, and the dynasty that ruled Lydia before Gyges took over were of Danite ancestry?

Thursday, June 1, 2017

Dan and Baalbek

I talked about Dan a great deal in an early post of this Blog.  The Tribe of Dan and the Sea Peoples, some aspects of that I've changed my mind on as shown in my post about Cush and in The Lost Tribes and the Sea Peoples.

While a great deal of what I said in that post is still important to me.  I've now changed my mind on the details of it even more as I've come to agree with Velikovsky on the Dan of Jeroboam's Calf being Baalbek.

The key change being that I can no longer necessarily agree with my past assessment (taken from Birtam) that the Leshem-Dan of Joshua and Laish-Dan of Judges are different places.  Or at least if they are somewhat different not nearly so far away from each other.  Maybe they could still be different migrations to basically the same area.

I do not associate Dan with less locations however.  From this site they migrated and scattered further.  Moses foretold they would Leap from Bashan.  So I still think they are tied to the Danuna/Denyen of the Sea Peoples as well as Adana in Turkey.

However I can't agree with Velikovsky's desire to diminish how Roman the site of Baalbek we know today is.  Chris White in Ancient Aliens Debunked thoroughly proves how Roman it is.  And it had the same Architect as the one who designed Hadrian's Temple Complex over the Temple Mount.  A fact relevant to making the Southern Conjecture argument.

However it perhaps adds interesting context to Hadrian building these two complexes at the same time, if Baalbek was the Dan of Jeroboam.  Maybe he wanted to leave his mark on the Holy Sites of both Kingdoms of Israel.

Saturday, May 6, 2017

Orion, Osiris, Nimrod, Set, Sothis

Amongst the misinformation floating around about Nimrod out there, are claims he can be identified with both Orion and Osiris.  Osiris is linked to Orion, but I think that is about the the extent of the reason Nimrod is linked to Osiris.

In my main The Bible never says Nimrod was evil post I talked a bit about this.  How The Bible also calls Esau a Hunter, and so the name Seir being linked to Osiris (I have not been able to independently verify it being linked to Orion) makes an Esau connection more likely then Nimrod.  Then I did my post on Osiris and Seir.

I've done some more research on this since however. 

Sah is the name the Egyptians gave Orion, and he was frequently identified with Osiris.

BTW, one of the reasons I've become so skeptical of my old belief in Gospel in the Stars/Mazzroth theories is because the claim that what the Constellations are is universal is actually quite wrong.  Not only are the totally different as far away from Greece as China and Japan and even India.  But even the other Mediterranean cultures were not as consistent with the Constellation we're used to (which were the Greek's view of them) as people like to claim.

In this case. I've seen it pointed out that Orion was the only Constellation that the Egyptians had in common with the Greeks.  But even then Sah is never defined as a Hunter, neither is Osiris.  The Mesopotamians didn't call Oion a Hunter either, they called him "The Heavenly Shepherd" or "True Shepherd of Anu".  It seems to be Canis Major they viewed as a Hunter (Ninurta) firing an arrow (Sirius) at Orion, so Orion was the hunted.

It is worth noting though the etymology of the name Sirius may come form Seir.   From Wikipedia.
The most commonly used proper name of this star comes from the Latin Sīrius, from the Ancient Greek Σείριος (Seirios, "glowing" or "scorcher"),[112] although the Greek word itself may have been imported from elsewhere before the Archaic period,[113]
Another claim about the Egyptian view of the stars you see a lot is that Sothis (the Egyptian name for Sirius) was Set/Seth.  Actually Sothis being a Greek Corruption of the name Sopdet, was their name for Sirius but it was viewed as feminine and identified with Isis.  The child of Sah and Spodet was Sopdu, who was identified with Horus and according to some hard to verify sourced the planet Venus.

So be aware that there is a lot of misinformation out there when studying these topics.

Another astronomical mystery is what Star was refereed to as Nibiru, also spelled Neberu or Nebiru.  The whole Planet X mythology is easily debunk able nonsense.  But the name does come from Babylonian texts.  Some think it refereed to Jupiter, other have speculated various stars in Constellations.  Certain references to it seem an awful lot like Polaris to me.

Interestingly the Mesopotamian city commonly called Nippur was in Sumerian called Nibru and in Akkadian Nibbur.

The Septuagint renders Nimrod as Nebrod.  Why the M would become a B I can't figure out.  In our Greek texts of Josephus a similar thing happens, it becomes Nabrodes in Antiquities Chapter 2 Section 2.  And Nabrodou in Section 3.  So perhaps there is a relationship there.

Our main references to Nibiru associate it with Marduk/Merodach.  But Marduk actually develops late in the history of Babylonian religion, or at least doesn't become a lead god till late, being largely popularized by the first Nebuchadezzar, conventionally dated to 1125-1104 BC, but some revised Chronologists have moved him later.  In this later development he takes over many of the traits and functions the originally belonged to Enlil, but Marduk is a son of Enki's rival and brother Enlil.  Nippur was the chief center of the worship of Enlil.  So I think Marduk usurped Nibiru from Enlil.  Perhaps symbolic of Satan's desire to claim Nimrod served him rather then Yahuah.

Dumuzid was possibly another son of Enki.  Dumuzid was also called The Shepard, so he might have been associated with Orion who was the Shepard to the Babylonians.  Which links him to the same Constellation Orisis was.  And like Osiris he is the King who reigns in The Underworld.

Sunday, April 2, 2017

Jerusalem and Zion, Which is The City of David

An argument can be made that the account of how Jerusalem came under David's control (2 Samuel 5:6-9 and 1 Chronicles 11:4-8) makes more sense if Jebus and "Zion which is the City of David" are separate cities.  He had to take one first to conquer the other. And this fits later references to the two locations in the time of Solomon also.  The Ark was brought out of the City of David to The Temple, and likewise the Daughter of Pharaoh was brought out of the City of David to Solomon's house.  It looks like after the Jebusites chose to resist, David simply chose the fortress of Zion to be the base of his campaign against Jebus.

It might be that Jerusalem is sometimes used broadly of an entire district, but when used specifically of a single City it's just Jebus.  Some references to Jerusalem and Zion in the same verse often taken to verify their being synonymous, can also work as listing separate cities side by side.  Like Isaiah 64:10 which says cities, plural, then lists Jerusalem and Zion.  But since Zion also arguably has both a poetic broader application and a more specific one, perhaps it fits when paired with Jerusalem, two names that refer to different specific cities but basically the same area when applied broadly.  Psalm 76:2 also makes sense as referring to Salem and Zion as separate cities.

It's possible sometimes Jerusalem and Zion are paired together to represent the two tribes of the Southern Kingdom, Benjamin and Judah, Psalm 78:68 says Zion is a mount of Judah.  Which can in turn be taken back more broadly to represent both wives of Jacob, Benjamin from Rachel and Judah from Leah.

And perhaps David's design for this area was similar in intent to the original plan for Washington DC, taking parts of both Maryland and Virginia to create a capital District.  Isaiah 24:23 refers to Yahuah ruling in Zion and in Jerusalem, as if they are separate.

One question that might pop into your mind from the idea of separating Jerusalem from the City of David is, which city then is Ariel in Isaiah 29?  "Where David dwelt" could apply to both but arguably fits the City of David better.  And Zion is mentioned explicitly.  Also Ariel means "Lion of God", that fits it being a Judean rather then Benjamite city, as Judah is the Lion in Genesis 49.  Other tribes (Gad and Dan) are associated with Lions elsewhere (Deuteronomy 33), but not Benjamin.

I think the house David built with materials provided by Hiram of Tyre was in Jebus/Jerusalem, where he lived and had children with his wives from Jerusalem, and that could be the same archeological site it's usually associated with.   But the Fort of Zion was in the City of David, that fort already existed.

Ophel is a place-name linked to the Gihon once.  It's a Hebrew word for Tent sometimes used of the The Tabernacle, and in the KJV is translated " tabernacle", so it may not always refer to the same place. Maybe the Ophel in the City of David could have been where David's Tabernacle was?

Only 2 Chronicles 1:4 says David pitched a Tent for the Ark in Jerusalem rather then Zion or the CIty of David.  First off the books of Chronicles probably entered their final form later, so a broader definition of what qualifies as Jerusalem may make more sense there.  But also this reference comes after David had purchased Moriah, so maybe the Ark did some moving around during this period.

I think Jerusalem is usually the City called the Daughter of Zion or Daughter of Sion. But "daughter of ____" can sometimes refer to a separate City that is related in some way.  Like Tyre being the Daughter of Sidon/Zidon in Isaiah 23:12.  And the Daughter of Babylon I think is likely Hammurabi/Nebuchadnezzar's Babylon, the daughter of the original Babel which was Eridu.

The City we usually call Jerusalem I feel is obviously the Jerusalem of the The Gospels & Acts and thus the Jebus of the Hebrew Bible.  Where Solomon and Zerubabel/Herod's Temples were built.  So where then is the City of David and Mount Zion?

Luke Chapter 2 in verses 4 and 11 calls Bethlehem the City of David, and endless Christian commentaries try to explain why this doesn't contradict the Hebrew Bible's City of David being Jerusalem by saying both could be described that way.  Yet we're supposed to use Scripture to interpret Scripture, and Luke said "The" not "a".  And Christians view the New Testament as revealing and clarifying the "Old Testament".  This argument would not convince Jews or other non Christians of course, so fortunately I have some directly from the Hebrew Scriptures.

1 Samuel 20:6 when speaking of David refers to Bethlehem as "his city", that predates the exact phrase "City of David' ever occurring.  When you think about it this should always have been obvious, the hometown of David is the City of David.  To go back to a previous point, Bethlehem was in Judah.

If you object, "David had to capture his own home town?" remember what I said above, in my theory Zion didn't need to be captured, it was the base of operations for capturing Jebus.  Bethlehem is also in a mountainous region, in fact it's elevated higher then Jerusalem.  Perhaps the Gihon was the spring now known as the Spring of Etam, or Atan?

It's interesting to note that the Crusaders also captured Bethlehem first, Godfrey sent Tancred to take it, then they used it as a base in their siege of Jerusalem. Lots of people overlook this detail of the Crusades, but once you're aware of how Bethlehem is elevated higher then Jerusalem, you realize it is ideal to secure that area first if you want to siege Jerusalem.

Micah 5:2 is the key Prophecy that The Messiah would be born in Bethlehem.  But remember the Chapter divisions were not in the original text, and Micah 5 does sound like it's starting in the middle of something.  Micah mentions Zion constantly, particularly in chapter 4.

The first time Bethlehem is mentioned it is home to the Tower of Edar in Genesis 35:20-21.  Micah 4:8 refers to the Tower of Edar (Tower of The Flock in the KJV) as the Stronghold of Zion.  Then later refers to Jerusalem arguably as a separate city.  Some traditions say it was from the Migdol Eder that the Angel announced the Birth of Jesus to the Shepherds.

Psalm 132 mentions Ephratah in a context that seems to place the Tabernacle (Ophel) and The Ark there.  And it is a Davidic Psalm.  The City of David housed the Tabernacle of David and The Ark during most of David's reign.  And that Psalm also uses the name Zion.

2 Samuel 2:32 says David's nephew Asahel was buried in Bethlehem in the sepulcher of his father.  Kings of the House of David are repeatedly refereed to as being buried in the City of David, and resting with their fathers.  Starting with David himself in 1 Kings 2:10 being buried with his father in the City of David (Acts 13:36 also says David was buried with his fathers).  And it turns out Bethlehem does have a site with a tradition of being where David was buried.  Or the Kings might have been among those buried in the Bronze Age caves built where modern Efrat is.'s_Tomb " In the 4th century CE, he and his father Jesse were believed to be buried in Bethlehem. The idea he was entombed on what was later called Mt Zion dates to the 9th century CE." Rabbi Dr. Ari Zivotofsky, 'Where is King David Really Buried?,' The Jewish Press, May 15th 2014.  "By the mid-fourth century, the tombs of King David and his father, Jesse, are described as being in Beit Lechem.[See Limor, “King David’s Tomb.”] The first mention of Mount Zion as King David’s final resting place was in the ninth century".  Back to Wikipedia  "4th century Pilgrim of Bordeaux reports that he discovered David to be buried in Bethlehem, in a vault that also contained the tombs of Ezekiel, Jesse, Solomon, Job, and Asaph, with those names carved into the tomb walls."...[Ora Limor, "The Origins of a Tradition: King David's Tomb on Mount Zion," Traditio 44 (1988): 459.] "Having initially revered David's tomb in Bethlehem, Muslims began to venerate it on Mount Zion instead but no earlier than the 10th century following the Christian (and possibly Jewish) lead. In the twelfth century, Jewish pilgrim Benjamin of Tudela recounted a somewhat fanciful tale of workmen accidentally discovering the tomb of David on Mount Zion."
Asahel was a maternal Nephew which makes the above argument not quite a slam dunk exactly.  But his father is never identified.  And all three of Zeruiah's children are called sons of Zeruiah rather then by their father.  That makes it possible they may have been born out of wedlock and so mostly treated as part of Jesse's family.  Either way being buried in Bethlehem means, if it was his direct father he was buried with, he was one from the same city and so probably at least the same Tribe.  That David's nephews were so important to him means he may have insisted they be buried as part of the royal family.

Some kings are assumed to not be buried with the others in the City of David however.  Manasseh and Amon were buried in the Garden of Uzza or Uzzah, in 2 Kings 21. Manasseh is still said to have "slept with his fathers", however that terminology is arguably more vague being sometimes just used of death in general.  But, Uzzah was also the name of the person who died from touching the Ark as it was transported to the City of David, and David named a location after this Uzzah, Perezuzzah.  And another Uzza is listed in 1 Chronicles 6:29 as a Levite who was appointed a Musician in the Tabernacle of David.  So the name of Uzza can be linked to the City of David.

Jehoram was buried in the City of David but not with the other kings because of the condition he died in according to 2 Chronicles 21:20.  2 Chronicles 24:25 has a similar situation with Joash.  Jehoiada, a priest who married Jehosheba, a daughter of Jehoram, is refereed to as being buried among the Kings in the City of David in 2 Chronicles 24:16.  So that adds more context to the Asahel situation.

Another King explicitly said not to be Buried with the others was Ahaz in 2 Chronicles 28:27, and this time it doesn't mention the City of David but says he was buried in Jerusalem.  Maybe where he was buried could be a clue to Manesseh and Amon's Garden of Uzza.

The name of Uzza/Uzzah here could be a variation of Uzziah, another name of King Azariah.  This king was originally buried "in the field of the burial which belonged to the kings" (2 Kings 15:7; 2 Chr. 26:23), but... that leads us to the Uzziah Tablet.
In 1931 an archeological find, now known as the Uzziah Tablet, was discovered by Professor E.L. Sukenik of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He came across the artifact in a Russian convent collection from the Mount of Olives. The origin of the tablet previous to this remains unknown and was not documented by the convent. The inscription on the tablet is written in an Aramaic dialect very similar to Biblical Aramaic. According to its script, it is dated to around AD 30-70, around 700 years after the supposed death of Uzziah of 2 Kings and 2 Chronicles. Nevertheless, the inscription is translated, "Hither were brought the bones of Uzziah, king of Judah. Not to be opened." It is open to debate whether this tablet really was part of the tomb of King Uzziah or simply a later creation. It may be that there was a later reburial of Uzziah here during the Second Temple Period.
Being buried on the Mount of Olives, is pretty interesting.

It may also be interesting to note that a Bethlehem site is believed to be where Herod was buried, the Herodion.  And Herod's Official Biographer claimed him to be of Davidic ancestry.  I also wonder if Herod built his Herodium fortress over the older fort David had used that I'd mentioned earlier, possibly eliminating all evidence of the older fort.  Some aspects of Josephus description seem consistent with the idea of an older fortification existing there, it was the site of a battle before Herod built anything.

Bethlehem is never mentioned (by that name at least) in the books of Kings and only once in 2 Chronicles during the reign of Rehoboam.  As if during the Kingdom period calling it by that name was phased out in favor of the City of David.  Of course between Solomon and Hezekiah the only references to the City of David are as where the Kings were buried.

If you still think The Man-Child of Revelation 12 is Jesus.  It is Zion far more often then Jerusalem refereed to as travailing in Childbirth. With my view of The Man-Child as The Church at The Rapture, maybe Bethlehem will play a role in that?  After all a heavenly Mount Sion is important to Revelation 14.

Yahuah-Shammah is nine times the size of modern Jerusalem, according to the most common estimate of it's size, it could be larger.  Bethlehem is about five miles south of Jerusalem.  Yahuah-Shammah could be large enough to encompass both Jerusalem and Bethlehem.

But remember not all references to Bethlehem are to the one in Ephratah of Judah, there is another lesser known one in the North.  Sometimes people will try to argue that is where Jesus was born, but Micah, Matthew and Luke all make qualifiers ruling out the Northern One.  And the reference in John 7 would make no sense in that context if they meant a city in Galilee.

So I have run into a potential problem with my Bethlehem theory.  Nehemiah 3:15-16 and 12:37 refer to the City of David as seemingly pretty clearly within the Jerusalem he rebuilt, and refers to the burial site of the Kings being there.  But I shall look more into that as there could be an explanation.

The potential answer to that issue is that Nehemiah's wall was larger then we usually think it was, that it encompassed Jerusalem and Bethlehem.  Maybe the wall we usually identify it with isn't it at all, or maybe it is but was only part of it.  And that most of what Nehemiah built we won't find the remains of due to the conquests of Israel by Antiochus Epiphanes and Rome.

Given my speculation that the Construction projects of Suleiman The Magnificent could be a second fulfillment of the Daniel 9 Prophecy fulfilled by Nehemiah.  It's interesting to note that he also built fortifications in Bethlehem, like The Castle of The Pools.

Update: a Post in which I consider there may have been two Arks, possibly filling some gaps in this study.

Further Update: The Death of Rachel and Birth of Benjamin

Is traditional assumed to have been in Bethlehem.  But many have read Genesis 35 more carefully as saying the birth of Benjamin, Death of Rachel and her Burial were on the way to Ephratah and the Migdal Eder from Bethel.

If so that makes it likely these events happened in land later allotted to Benjamin.  As the only of the 12 sons born in the Land, perhaps it makes he'd be allotted his birth place. 2 Samuel 10:2 refers to her Tomb as being in Benjamin.  And there are traditions saying it is specifically in Ramah, which could be relevant to the "Voice Crieth form Ramah" Prophecy of Jeremiah 31:15 quoted in Matthew 2.

As far as my citing it as evidence of Bethlehem being Zion.  I note that this argument observed that after these events Jacob traveled past the Migdal Eder and set up a Tent.  Perhaps this Tent was where the Tabernacle of David was later sent up?  Maybe that is the origin of the site popular viewed as Rachel's Tomb today?

Wednesday, March 1, 2017

Are Jews Edomites?

That's another claim you commonly see among Anti-Semites who want to argue modern Jewish communities (chiefly the Ashkenazim) are not legit descendants of the Ancient Israelites.

I find it interesting actually how White Supremisicts and Afro-Centrists believe basically the same thing about Ashkenazim Jews.  The KKK and Neo-Nazis hate Blacks but don't give them enough credit to view them as the Evil Masterminds of their Conspiracy Theories, so to them the Ashkenazim Jews are the puppet masters.  While Black Power groups view the Ahskenazim Jews as the Whitest of all White People.  So both see them as the ultimate villains.  And both when presenting their views in a Biblical Context, will often argue some sort of Jews aren't real Israelites theory.

The common Kazzar myth will be made an aspect of that.  That myth is easy to debunk, one of my favorite videos on the subject is Chris White's.
What's added to this here is claiming the Khazzars were Edomites.  Many Medieval texts seem to identify the Khazzars as being one of the tribes to come from Togarmah son of Gomer son of Japheth, like other tribes of that region. Some like Britam and Veilikovsky (in Beyond the Mountains of Darkness) have sought to claim Lost Tribes descent for the Khazars.  I last month on another blog discussed reasons to think they may have partially descended from Benjamin's son Rosh.

But another factor brought in to allow a far more ancient Edomite infiltration of Judaism, is to talk about how the Hasmoneans forcibly converted the Idumeans.  First of all I have cited Bill Cooper's After The Flood Appendix 1 to support my view that the Idumeans came from Ishmael's sons Dumah not Edom.  Second, who was of Idumean ancestry was always well known, and it seems like after 70 AD many Idumeans reverted back to being gentiles and are in fact now a significant portion of the ancestry of the modern Palestinians.

But also, since NT era Idumea is essentially the land allotted to Simeon originally.  And Simeonites latter migrated to and conquered the Mt Seir region in the time of Hezekiah.  Maybe the Idumeans had some Simeonite stock intermingled into them?

But I also want to say that there is nothing inherently wrong with being descended from Esau.  The Torah allows Gentile converts to be incorporated into Israel.  And in the new Testament all who are Believers in Jesus are spiritually Abraham's Seed.

The last thing I want to talk about is the Red Hair issue.

Because of how Esau is described, especially at his birth (Genesis 25:25), he is assumed to have had Red Hair.  And today Red Hair can be a bit more common then usual trait among Ashkenazim Jews.

Some question if Esau was a Red Head, and argue that this is a reference to how sometimes Babies skin color looks reddish at birth (people saying Blacks are the true Israelites will say this particularly happens with Black babies sometimes).  Esau's hair is definitely talked about however, he was a Hairy individual, but there is room to debate if it was ever the Hair being described as Red.

BTW, that's where the name Edom comes from, a variation on the Hebrew word for Red.  But some dispute that it always or even at all means Red but rather that it can also mean Brown.  But I think it probably means Red.  A form of the word is used to describe Ruby/Sardius gems.

Regardless, if Esau did have Red Hair, Jacob was Esau's twin brother, so it shouldn't be surprising if their descendants carry some common genetic traits.  And Red Hair has a particular tendency to be a recessive gene.  So Jacob could easily have still carried the Red Hair gene Esau inherited even if he didn't have Red Hair himself.

The same word used to describe Esau as Red is also used of David interestingly, in 1 Samuel 16:12 and 17:42.  The same above disputes arguably apply.  Plus how it's used with David makes it seem less likely to be a reference to specifically Hair rather then something else.  Regardless people have used those verses to say David was a Red Head.  Which if true would verify that the Red Hair gene existed among descendants of Jacob.

There are some studying the DNA of Jewish families that claim Pater-lineal descent from David to see if they can kind a Y Chromosome Genetic marker similar to the Kohen Y Chromosome that's been found.
Davidic Dynasty DNA Research.
If they succeed, it would be interesting to then do a study to see if Genetically verified descendants of David are statistically more likely then other Jews to have Red Hair.

But Red Hair unlike the Y Chromosome or (most of the time) family names, can be passed on though the mother.  In fact you're more likely to actually have Red Hair if both parents carry the Gene.   Yet Tribal identity in Ancient Israel was usually determined by the Father's Tribe.  So let's look at how many confirmed times a daughter of the House of David could have passed David's DNA into another Clan.

David had at least one Daughter, Tamar.  And unfortunately it can be considered unlikely she ever married after what happened to her.  But not impossible.  I also feel like it's implied David had other Daughters, but we can't be certain.

Absalom we are told had children including at least one daughter.

Solomon had two daughters we know of.  Both were married to governors of Northern Kingdom locations.  So it's possible via them a Hypothetical Davidic Red Hair gene could have wound up among the Northern Kingdom's population, which can be interesting to note for Lost Tribes theories.

Rehoboam had 18 Wives and 60 Concubines who bore him 28 sons and 60 daughters.  His successor Abijah married 14 wives and had 22 sons and 16 daughters.  If most of those daughters were married into important families throughout the Kingdom, it's hypothetically possible that by the end of the Kingdom Period everyone in the Southern Kingdom could have been a descendant of Rehoboam.

Jehosbeba was a daughter of Jehoram of Judah, for various reasons I think probably not by Athaliah.  She was married to Jehoiada, a Priest and thus a descendant of Aaron.  We know Jehoiada had at least one son, but no direct confirmation he was borne by Jehosheba.  Still, we have here a chance for a possible Davidic Red Hair gene to wind up in the Kohen gene pool.

Zedekiah we are told had daughters in The Book of Jeremiah.  British Israelism claims Irish and later Scottish and via the Stuarts British Royalty descends from one of those daughters.  If you believe that theory it's interesting to note that Red Hair is most common among the Irish.

Hillel The Elder who was a Benjamite by his father, claimed descent from David's son Shaphatiah by Avital via his mother.  Hillel's family were leaders of the Sanhedrin till it was disbanded.  Rashi was a descendant of Hillel and thus many modern Jewish families can claim descent from Hillel.

I believe Mary the mother of Jesus was a descendant of Nathan via Luke's Genealogy.  We are told she had a Sister, and I think her sister was the mother of Zebedee's children, James and John.  I also believe she had at least two Daughters.  And I even have a theory one of them could be ancestral to the Bagartid Dynasty.  And if my theory that Joseph of Arimathea was Joses the Brother of Jesus is true, that could add a twist to theories about Arthurian Legend and Grail Romance, but that is for another time on another Blog.

So maybe it's possible to develop a theory that every Red Head is descended from either Esau or David?

Some people have suggested the 19th Dynasty could have been of Hyksos stock because of their interest in Set who become unpopular after the Hyksos period.  Since Ramses II is proven to have had Red hair, that can be interesting in light of viewing the Hyksos as the Edomite Amalekites.

Wednesday, January 18, 2017

Sinai in Yemen

It seems most websites talking about the idea that Sinai was in Yemen aren't giving a specific Mountain.  Just referring to Teman of Habakkuk 3:3 paralleling Deuteronomy 33 with Teman in place of Sinai.  And how Teman was a Jewish name for Yemen.  And mentioning the Kadesh-Barnea as Mecca theory and how that involves identifying the first Meribah, Exodus 17, with Ma'rib in Yemen.

Teman is also often translated South and Jesus called the Queen of Sheba the Queen of The South.  And that Kingdom we know was in Yemen.

First I want to mention how all the Tribes of Arabia were wandering nomads, so it doesn't surprise me that many place names may repeat in both Northern Arabia/Jordan and Southern Arabia/Yemen.  Like with Teman or Midian/Medan, or Seir, or Paran.  And there is no doubt there was more then one Kadesh and Meirbah in the Wandering account.

Jebel El-Lawz supporters like to emphasize how Josephus called Sinai the tallest Mountain in the area.  And I agree that it is in Arabia.  Well it seems to me unclear whether he meant just where ever he meant by Midian, or all of Arabia.  So I've decided maybe we should start our search by looking for the tallest mountain in Arabia.

Well the tallest Mountain on the Arabian Peninsula happens to be in Yemen.  And the second tallest is very near by it.  It's name is Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb, the second tallest is Jabal Tiya.  Both are located on opposite sides of the city of Sana'a.  And a district in Sana'a is called Madina.  They are part of or near a mountain range called Jabal Haraz.  And another linked location is Tihamah.  And there is also near to Yemen's north the Asir region

Some of those names sound awfully familiar don't they?  Yet they don't seem to come from local traditions claiming any such Biblical connection.  Since the Israelites were traveling towards the Promised land when they went from Sinai to Kadesh-Barnea.  If Barnea is Mecca and Sinai was in Yemen, then the Asir Mountains would be the Mountains of Seir between Sinai and Kadesh.  Doesn't mean the traditional location of Seir isn't the place in mind in other references to Seir.  There is actually no doubt that The Bible refers to more then one Seir since there is also a Seir near Hebron in Joshua 15.

BTW, the only two mountains in the entire middle east that are taller don't come close to even fitting the loosest definition of Arabia, one's in Lebanon and the other in Iran.

The tallest mountain in Arabia is named after Shu'ayb.   A Midianite Prophet mentioned in the Quran, who is linked to Mt Sinai and often either identified with Jethro or viewed as a predecessor of Jethro's priesthood.  Yet this mountain which bears his name isn't where current Islamic traditions say he lived, no the Northern Arabia/Jordan assumption is the basis for the official site of his tomb.

I then Google searched and found at least one person had came to this conclusion before I did.

Sana'a is the Capital of modern Yemen, while we're used to thinking of Sinai as being away from civilization.  But Sana'a wasn't always the capital, and the city, even the old city, is barely older then Islam, first popping up around 530 AD.  The very tall Mountain was always there, but the City was not.

I also want to talk a little more about the name of Sheba.

I obviously disagree with the premise of The Bible Came from Arabia.  I think Jerusalem was always what we today call Jerusalem, and Beth-El to the north of it.  Likewise with Hebron and Galilee ect.

But I do think in some senses what God promised to Abraham did extent further south then we usually think.  Especially since the sons of Keturah were totally South of what God gave Abraham according to most traditional maps of the Abrahamic covenant.

Beersheba is often given as a southern border of Israel.  But it's not a boundary marker included in Ezekiel 40-47.  It is usually contrasted with Dan, and since I think what is meant by Dan can extend pretty far North of the proper tribal allotments (Dan's proper allotment wasn't in the North at all), perhaps Beersheba as a southern border includes in a sense the sons of Keturah.  And thus lands that David ruled as Tributaries rather then directly.  Elijah stopped at Beersheba on the way to Horeb.

Linked to Beersheba is a place called Shebah (Genesis 26:33) and Sheba (Joshua 19:2).  They're in land allotted to the Simeonites, but remember from Genesis 49 the Simeonites ultimately lost their own land to be absorbed into the other tribes.

Now the Strongs lists those references to Sheba as totally separate words from the Genesis 10 Shebas and the Queen of Sheba.  But the variation is really rather small, involving a letter that sometimes gets used as a vowel.  And interestingly for the Queen, only Genesis 26 uses the name in a Feminine form.

Perhaps Beersheba is the border between Peleg and Joktan?  And king Abimelech of Genesis 20 and 21 was a Joktanite King?  And the Philistines of Genesis 26 had not yet fully migrated to the Gaza Strip from Caphtor?  2 Chronicles 14 refers to Cushites in Gerar, which is interesting given my Cushites in Arabia observations.  Abimelech was probably a title not a personal name.

The Yam Suf clearly refers to the Red Sea, as that is where Solomon had his port.  But perhaps the Red Sea crossing was at Bab-el-Mandeb?  It is called that because in some traditions early migrations to Africa from Babel crossed there.  So it would make sense to lead the Israelites there, going the opposite direction.  And Afro-centrists sometimes claim this is where men first left Africa.

Update June 12th 2017: Goshen's location.

In conjunction with the Bab-el Mandeb aspect of this theory.  I feel like questioning the traditional location of Goshen in the Delta.  It's largely dependent on thinking Exodus mentions Ramses II's capital, but we in revised Chronology know that is wrong.

But first I should note, Exodus tells us Yahuah went out of his way to make sure their path to the Promised didn't run into the Philistines.  So I think it makes he would avoid the "Sinai" Peninsula altogether.

That Joshua conquered all the way to Goshen normally makes one think it can't be too deep into Egypt.  But if Joshua was during the Second Intermediate period, as the Hyksos were establishing themselves.  Or maybe even the First Intermediate period.  Then the idea of him briefly conquering all of Egypt isn't so out there.  Especially for those who think the River of Egypt used a boundary marker for the Covenant is The Nile.  Identifying Yaqub-Har with Jacob as some like to clearly doesn't work.  But maybe Yacub-Har was a name the Egyptians call Joshua?  As a leader of the descendants of Jacob.

The Migdol of Eygpt may not always be the same place, Migdol just means any Tower or fortification.  But interestingly many interpret Ezekiel's reference to Migdol in Egypt as being in the South near Syene/Aswan.  And I've seen Jeremiah's Migdol in Egypt interpreted as being an Island in The Nile Isrealites settled on, from what we know outside The Bible that best fits Elephantine, in the South/Upper Egypt.

Genesis 45:10 says Goshen was near Joseph.  I have become convinced Joseph's Pharaoh was a Second Dynasty one due to the Second Dynasty having an ancient account of a somewhat similar Famine, during the reign of Neferkasokar.  (The more Popular Imhotep Famine story is a Ptolemaic ea invention, not ancient enough, and is less similar then this to the Biblical story anyway.)  The office of Grand Vizer seems to not show up in exiting Egyptian Records till later then the 2nd Dynasty.  It could be it was basically invented for Joseph.  The 2nd Dynasty Pharaoh's ruled from an Upper Egypt capitol.  So at this time that description makes an Upper Nile location for Goshen more logical.

I before and many others got confused by exactly what Velikovsky was claiming in his Kadesh-Barnea theory, he wasn't placing Sinai in Yemen, he was saying Mar'ib wasn't in Yemen.  He actually did place Sinai in the traditional Helena selected location, and argued how Mecca could be 11 days from there.  In that context needing around 20 days for Israel to get from Southern Egypt or Northern Sudan to Bab-el Mandeb is perfectly feasible.  As said above Sinai being north of Barnea doesn't fit because they were traveling to the Promised Land when they traveled from Sinai to Barnea.

I've seen people suggest that the Slavery of the Israelites in Egypt maybe wasn't the kind of Slavery we usually picture, but perhaps almost a kind of Serfdom, or like the Helots were to Sparta.  I'm not sure what I think of that in general, but it could arguably fit Egypt's relationship with Kerma.  Also Kerma first appears in Egyptian records after the 2nd Dynasty and thus after my placement for Joseph.

The continuity between Kerma of the Old and Middle Kingdoms and even early 18th Dynasty, with the Nubian civilization that appeared at Napata during the Third Intermediate Period and went to spring the 25th Dynasty, is a subject of controversy.  It's unclear to me whether or not the Egyptians called anyone Kush before the 18th Dynasty.  Some depictions of the Kermites seemingly show them as not quite as dark as the later Nubians, but that could be misleading, and how they looked works with my argument here either way.  I'm fine with thinking the Israelites were once very Dark Skinned.  And I certainly believe many Black people groups today have Israelite Ancestry, the Aksumites, the Lemba and the Igbo to name a few.

But I've also wondered.  What if Goshen and Cushan can be the same name?  Both have distinct Hebrew spellings in the Hebrew Bible.  But Egypt used a different Alphabet and Goshen could come from attempting to represent what the Egyptians called this area.  The same Hebrew name, Yeshua, can become in English Bibles both Jeshua and Jesus depending on if Greek is a middle man in the Transliteration process.  Goshen and Cushan could be the same kind of thing here.

This theory can still have Kerma exist after the Exodus.  Just as many Egyptians and other gentiles who placed Blood on their Doorpost left with the Israelites, thus them being called a mixed multitude.  Likewise Hebrews who didn't place their faith in the Passover Lamb were left behind.  And to begin with Israelites may not have been the only people in Kerma.  And when Joshua conquered all the way to Goshen he may have left some settlers there.  And perhaps some Hyksos settled there, ones with Edomite or Ishmaelite ancestry may have felt a kinship.  The Hyksos mainly based their power in the Delta, but one Hyksos ruler was named "The Nubian".

Velikovsky argued that Kadesh-Barnea was Mecca.

As I've come to agree with Velikovsky less then I used to on some matters.  But this is an example of one of his lesser known ideas that I've come to find compelling.

The "Great and Terrible Wilderness".

Some corresponding identities I'm not sold on, like Medina with the Midian of Jetho, I think that Midian was probably the usual Midian, but shouldn't his theory be looking for it in Yemen?  And while I've contemplated the idea of Sinai in Yemen, I'm annoyed by the logic that goes into trying to make it a Volcano.  And I've already talked about where I agree and disagree concerning the Amalekites.

I have already explained on this blog why I believe Sinai was in Arabia, even if I'm not so solid on Jebel El Lawz anymore.  And on the Ishmael tag of my Prophecy Blog, I discus further reasons I see some truth in the Islamic claims about Ishmael, even though I would never endorse Islamic Theology, Christolgoy or Soterology.  Including possibly agreeing that Baca of the Psalm 84:6 refers to the Bakkah of Mecca.

Others taking aspects of Velikovsky's argument have tied it into other totally off base theories, like all of Israel was in Arabia, or that the Mizraim of the Hebrew Bible was just an Arab tribe.

One thing that I'm not sure Velikovsky knew, was there where probably two places called Kadesh visited during the wandering.  The place where Miriam died was not Barnea.  I do think Barnea is meant by some unqualified references to Kadesh, and this theory requires all three Kadesh of Genesis to be Barnea.  But the Kadesh that marks a Southern/Eastern boundary of Israel in Ezekiel 47 and 48 I do not think was Barnea but was somewhere near Aqaba or Petra, where Miriam died, and a location near Patra is traditionally where Aaron was buried.  There were likewise two places called Meribah.

Lots of people I know disagree about there being two places called Kadesh in the wandering.   But reading of the narrative that assume them to be the same have Israel in the same place for like 38 years.  Deuteronomy 2:14 defines this 38 years as hey time they were traveling from Kadesh-Barnea to the Brook of Zered.  So they were at Barnea only at the start of that time-frame.  And in this case the sources Veiikvosky is drawing on say Mozaikiya and his tribe stayed in Mecca only a few years then traveled North.  BTW, the "Mountain of Moses" in the Masudi quote Velikovsky talked about could be Nebo where Moses was buried and died, rather then Sinai.

The Kadesh of Numbers 13, which is Barnea, is in the Wilderness of Paran.  In Numbers 20 they arrive at a Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin, no references to Paran apply to the Kadesh where Miriam died.  In Numbers 13:21 Zin is referenced not as being where that Kadesh is located, but as a southern border of the Promised Land that the 12 spies surveyed.

What interests me in particular is how this is one of the places where The Tabernacle had been erected, and some Arab historians do say a Tent existed where the Kaaba is first.  I have become intrigued by the argument that the Tabernacle was actually Dome shaped.  And there is a Dome shaped structure near the Kaaba.  I don't think any building there now goes back to the time of Moses, but it's interesting.

Every time it's called Barnea it's called that in retrospect.  It's just called Kadesh when Israel is there in the present in Numbers 13.  It's in references back to those events in Numbers 32 and 33, and in Deuteronomy and Joshua that it's called Kadesh-Barnea.   That makes me wonder what Barnea means?

Update May 2017: I made some mistakes up above.

I"m not alone in this mistake I made, lots of other people talking about what Velikovsky wrote on Kadesh-Barnea and Mecca seem to miss that he was suggesting Mar'ib wasn't in Yemen.

Velikovsky did not place Sinai in Yemen or in Arabia at all, he based this on a Sinai Peninsula Sinai view and said it fit the 11 day journey requirement by arguing a day's journey could be 40 Kilometers.  With that math you could also made Mecca as Barnea consistent with Jabal el-laws or Jebel al-Madhbah.

However I have a problem with placing Sinai north of Kadesh-Barnea, since the account of Israel traveling from Sinai to Kadesh implies they were heading in the direction of the Promised Land.  If Mecca is Kadesh-Barnea then Sinai is south of it, between them is a mountain range called Seir which could refer to the Asir mountains.  So it being in Yemen fits best.

I think the Kadesh in the Wilderness of Zin where Miraim died is Petra or someplace very near there.  The Mountain near Petra believed to be where Aaron was buried I think is where Aaron was buried.

The story Velikvosky was drawing on I think is itself a confused mixture of traditions.  Partly based on Moses but also mingled with how the Banu Khuza'a came to Mecca around the second century AD.  Or sometimes as early as the 6th Century BC.

One of the guilt by affiliation tactics used by enemies of Sinai in Arabia is a fear it would somehow vindicate Islam.  Muhammad's failures as a Prophet are sufficient to discredit Islam, Muslims traditions about Ishmael derive from what Jews and Christians of Arabia already believed.

Jerome and Eusebius both well before Muhammad placed the Wilderness of Paran in Arabia Deserta.

It is true that for most of Biblical History Ishmaelite tribes lived further north, mostly in Jordan and Syria.  But Jeremiah foretells Kedar being scattered by Nebuchadnezzar.  Which I talked about in my post showing that Muhammad descended from Ishmael.

But the Islamic traditions agrees that for a long time Mecca after Ishmael himself others controlled Mecca until the Kedarites came.  The Jurhum who are sometimes identified as Amalekites, and the Banu Khuza'a.